Summary Of The Munich Agreement

In the face of tensions between the Germans and the Czechoslovakian government, on 15 September 1938, Benes secretly proposed to cede 6,000 square kilometres to Czechoslovakia in Germany, in exchange for a German accession agreement of 1.5 to 2.0 million South Germans that expelled Czechoslovakia. Hitler did not respond. [13] The economic consequences of the Munich agreement will certainly be very severe for Czechoslovakia. The loss of industries, railwayheads, knots, etc., cannot help but cause a sharp loss of trade and unemployment. There is no doubt that Czechoslovakia becomes the object of quasi-colonial exploitation for Germany. The slogan “Above us, without us!” (Czech: O n`s bez n`s!) sums up the feelings of the Czechoslovakian population (Slovakia and the Czech Republic) towards the agreement. [Citation required] On its way to Germany, Czechoslovakia (as the state was renamed) lost its reasonable border with Germany and its fortifications. Without it, its independence became more nominal than more real. The agreement also caused Czechoslovakia to lose 70% of its steel industry, 70% of its electricity and 3.5 million citizens to Germany. [61] The Sudeten Germans celebrated what they saw as their liberation. The impending war, it seemed, had been averted. The British people expected an imminent war and Chamberlain`s “state gesture” was initially applauded.

He was greeted as a hero by the royal family and invited to the balcony of Buckingham Palace before submitting the agreement to the British Parliament. The general positive reaction quickly re-established despite the royal patronage. However, there was resistance from the beginning. Clement Attlee and labor rejected the deal in alliance with the two Conservative MPs Duff Cooper and Vyvyan Adams, who until then had been seen as a hard and reactionary element in the Conservative party. The Czechoslovakians were appalled by the colony of Munich. They were not invited to the conference and felt betrayed by the British and French governments. Many Czechs and Slovaks describe the Munich agreement as a Munich diktat (Czech: Mnichovska diktéta); in Slovak: Mnechovska diktét). The phrase “Munich betrayal” (Czech: Mnichovska zrada; In Slovak: Mnechovska zrada) is also used because Czechoslovakia`s military alliance with France proved useless. This is also reflected in the fact that the French government, in particular, had considered that Czechoslovakia would be held responsible for any European war that would result if the Czechoslovak Republic defended itself by force against German abuses.

In 1938, the Soviet Union was allied with France and Czechoslovakia.

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